|HOME||Nov-Dec 2005 Featured Stories||Background Information||News On The Web|
Anti-Semitism is an inherent part of Islamic culture, and it was reinforced over the centuries both by themes imported from Christian anti-Semitism, such as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, the blood libel, well-poisoning, and the like, and by the impact of the Arab-Israeli dispute.
Since the outbreak of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in 2000, a new element of operationalization has been added to the old anti-Jewish stereotypes. Arab and Muslim anti-Semitism has become more concrete, with the Believers encouraged to take actual violent measures against the Jews and Israel that have climaxed in the Islamikaze acts of terror.
This intensified anti-Semitism is manifested in pathological vilification of Jews and Israel, in using Christians as a tool in the battle against Israel, in resorting to Holocaust denial, and in libeling the Jews as global conspirators bent on taking over or, alternatively, destroying the world.
The old stereotypes of classical European anti-Semitism have been copiously replicated in Arab and Muslim writings. Recent Arab-Muslim anti-Semitism has taken some new forms concurrent with the enhanced anti-Semitic mood in the West. The main strata of inspiration have not changed substantially, and include Muslim sources, such as calling Jews "descendants of apes and swine," and borrowings from the Christian themes of blood libel, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, the world Jewish conspiracy, and the various ideas of "poisoning." Muslims also continue to utilize the Arab-Israeli conflict to cloak anti- Semitism as anti-Zionism or anti-Israelism.
What is new, however, is the operationalization of the old stereotypes into concrete acts, ostensibly aimed at countering the "wild" and uncontrollable conduct of the Zionists and Israelis. This new operationalization of anti-Semitism appears in many and varied areas, some of which include:
The general vilification of Jews goes on unabated, concurrently with the novel manifestations of anti-Semitism. The demonization of the Jews naturally leads to the demeaning of anything they do, produce, or inspire - such as their movement of national liberation, Zionism, which is seen as racist and vile just as they are, or their state, Israel, which deserves elimination just as they do.
In an article in Egypt's government-owned daily Al-Ahram, a Coptic scholar, Dr. Babawi, castigated the U.S. Congress for not stopping "Israel's artillery attacks on the Church of the Nativity and the Al- Aqsa Mosque." Babawi urged American Muslims and Copts to demonstrate against "crazy Sharon, who began behaving like a madman after he was hit in his sensitive place by a bullet during the 1948 War, which left him with only one testicle, something that has affected him psychologically, and he has become a psychopath, using power to hide his weakness...."
The article not only used an Arab tradition of sexually demeaning an opponent but also distorted the event at the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. Although Palestinians invaded the church at gunpoint, Babawi imputed the moral wrong to Israel, which tried to dislodge them from there. But no one could have missed the point: when a Copt in Egypt, a member of a persecuted minority in an Islamic country, must show that he is more Arab than his compatriots, an anti-Jewish attack was the best way to do it.
In another case, the Bishop of the Assyrian Church in Lebanon asserted that though the heads of today's Church are not Jewish, they are "led by Jews, whose faith is inimical to God, to the people and to Christianity" - a condemnation aimed at the previous Pope's support for reconciliation with the Jews. Babawi cited Jesus as having said to the Jews: "'You are the sons of Satan, and you practice the will of Satan your father,' to which they supposedly answered: 'No, we are not the sons of Satan, we are the sons of Abraham.' But he insisted: 'Had you been the sons of Abraham, you would be acting in accordance with the precepts of Abraham....You are the sons of Satan.'" This delegitimization of the Jews, aimed at gaining favor with the fundamentalist Hizbullah, seemingly defies logic since the dwindling Christian minorities in the Islamic world should presumably make common cause with the Jews. The Muslims, however, pressure the intimidated Christians into justifying the hatred of the Jews.
As noted, many anti-Jewish stereotypes among Muslims are imported from Western Christianity while others are Muslim-made. The parties liberally borrow from each other through the intermediary of the Eastern Christians in the Muslim world, who are conversant in both cultures including with regard to anti-Semitism. These Eastern Christians have not been affected by the Catholic Church's reformed approach to Judaism. Indeed, in passing interviews with Al-Manar Television some Christians compared the Islamikaze martyrs (shuhada) of the Al-Aqsa Intifada to Christ's martyrdom, even when Palestinian gunmen invaded the Church of the Nativity:
We kneel before the Palestinian people in the Church of the Nativity. They starve and thirst, but they are steadfast....The one who said "I am hungry" when he was on the Cross was our Lord Jesus himself.... Our Palestinian people in Bethlehem died like a crucified martyr on the rock guarded by Israeli soldiers armed from head to toe, who have no compassion, love, life, or tolerance....The Jew has a principle from which we suffer and which he tries to impose on people, and that is the principle of Gentiles. To him, the Gentile is a slave. They give the Palestinians working in Israel only a piece of bread, and tell them: "This piece of bread that you eat is taken from our children, and we give it to you so you will live as free men in your land, but as a proletariat and a slave in Israel, to serve us...." The Protocols of the Elders of Zion are based on this principle, and anyone who reads the Protocols feels that we are in this state of affairs with the Jews.
In Arab and Muslim publications and media, the scope of anti-Semitism has expanded beyond obscurantist clerics or fanatic nationalists to include ostensibly liberal, enlightened, and professional milieus. In this discourse, the interchangeability of Jews, Zionists, and Israelis is unmistakable. All three are alternately threatened with outright extermination. More than two decades after the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty, the Egyptian psychiatrist Dr. Adel Sadeq, who often accuses President Bush and the West of ignorance about the Arab psyche, calls for fighting Israel to the finish:
What is happening now indicates that Israel will not exist forever. We as Arabs must know that this war will not end..., and anyone who deludes himself that that there will be peace must understand that Israel did not come to this region to love the Arabs or to normalize relations with them....Either the Israelis or the Palestinians, there is no third option....There are no Israeli civilians, they are all plunderers, for history teaches this. I am completely convinced that the psychological effect of the Islamikaze on the Israeli usurper will be his realizing that his existence is temporary....Remove the Apache from the equation, leave them one on one with the Palestinian people with the only weapon being dynamite, then you will see all Israelis leave, because there is not even one Israeli among them willing to don a belt of explosives....We will throw Israel into the sea, there is no middle ground. Coexistence is total nonsense....The real means of dealing with Israel directly is those who blow themselves up. According to what I see in the battle arena, there is no other way but the pure, noble Palestinian bodies. This is the only Arab weapon there is, and anyone who says otherwise is a conspirator.
If statements of this sort are made by mainstream opinion makers, often graduates of Western universities at the doctoral level, in such "moderate" countries as Egypt and Saudi Arabia, how much more so by Islamic fundamentalists and other haters of Israel and Jews. For instance, in the Egyptian government-owned weekly October, founded and edited by Anis Mansur, one of the most virulent anti-Semites in the Arab world and a close associate of the late Anwar Sadat, a retired general named Hassan Sweilem had this to say:
Throughout history, since Emperor Justinian and down to Hitler, Europe's rulers had been trying to rid themselves of the acts of violence, barbarism, corruption, conflict-mongering, and other deeds that Jews were, and still are, in the practice of perpetrating in European societies..., like, for example, their domination of monetary systems, treasuries, banks, and commercial monopolies, which has caused widespread bankruptcy and economic destruction. They also disseminate drugs, prostitution, trade in women as sexual slaves, and alcohol. They have also monopolized the gold and precious stone trade, paid bribes to rulers and extorted them throughout history....
The Jews stood behind wars and internal strife, and that caused European rulers to expel them and kill them. For example, the Crusader armies, passing through the Rhine basin on their way east, massacred them and burned their houses as an act of repentance to their God. When the Crusaders entered Jerusalem, they collected the Jews in a synagogue and burned them live. Their kin in Russia suffered a similar fate....They were expelled from France, England, Germany, Hungary, Belgium, Slovakia, Austria, Holland, and finally from Spain, after they underwent the Inquisition trials for their conspiracy to penetrate Christian society like a Trojan horse....The Jewish conspiracy to take over Europe generated civil revolutions, wars, and internal strife....The Cromwell Revolution failed in 1649 in England, following the Jewish conspiracy to drag England into several wars in Europe....Then the French Revolution broke out, which the Jews had planned, based on the first conference of their rabbis and interest-loaners that had been convened by the first Rothschild in 1773 in order to take over all the world resources....That conference adopted twenty-four protocols, including the uprooting of the belief in God from the hearts of the Gentiles, distracting people by distributing among them literature of heresy and impurity, destruction of the family and eradication of all morality....
This article further "credited" the Jews with: putting Napoleon on the throne and then causing his demise, the 1776 war between Britain and the nascent United States, establishing the Bank of America with a view to controlling America's wealth, and then instigating the American Civil War. Sweilem also says the Protocols were written in 1770 by a German rabbi, financed by Rothschild, again in order "to destroy all governments and religions, spread anarchy and revolution, trigger wars, take over the wealth of nations, spread corruption among the youth, and control rulers by implanting in their governments Jewish ministers and advisers." Moreover, he explains that the Jews ordered the start of World War I, got the United States involved by spreading the rumor that an American ship had been sunk by the Germans, and, during the war, prepared the ground for both Communism and Nazism as an extension of the work of Marx and Engels a half-century earlier. Eventually Communism and Nazism confronted each other, "exactly as the Jews had planned." And if this was not enough, the Jews also caused the fall of the Ottoman Empire so as to concentrate wealth in their hands; and the Second World War erupted because of the constraints the Allies imposed on the Germans at Versailles - by order, Sweilem says, of the Jews.
All this, from a mainstream member of the Egyptian elite. Muslim fundamentalists are even more extreme in this regard - as, for example, in the Hamas Charter.
The above October article does not present historical findings for scholarly or educational purposes; instead it defames the Jews while warning of the "dangers" they pose to the world. The implication is that the Jewish state threatens world peace and is therefore illegitimate. These allegations, some of which have been imported from Europe to the Middle East and then reexported to the West, have become so commonplace that they are not viewed as propaganda but rather as conventional wisdom and documented history. Almost no intellectual or academic will dare to question their validity lest he be called a "traitor" to the Arab-Islamic cause.
Thus, forged citations and made-up "facts," for which one could be prosecuted in Western countries, are common currency in Islamic countries. The misguided masses, who have neither an interest in the facts nor a way to learn them beyond the propaganda they are exposed to, are reinforced in their antagonism toward Israel and the Jews.
Palestinian Islamikaze bombings against Israel have often been couched in anti-Zionist terms and justified in terms of the alleged machinations and dangers posed by the Jews. An anonymous Egyptian columnist, for example, like many other Egyptian pundits, specifically urged the Islamikaze to step up their operations against the Jews, and called for more Muslim volunteers to join them:
...with every blow struck by Al-Aqsa Intifadah, my conviction grows stronger that I, and those like-minded, have been right all along, and I am still right in my belief that the despised racist Jewish entity will be annihilated. Contrary to others, however, I am not ashamed to speak about driving them into the sea, to hell or to the trash heap where they belong....I maintain, and Allah is my witness, that the annihilation and defeat of the Israelis, after which there will be no resurrection, does not require all those things. All that is required is to concentrate on acts of martyrdom, or what is known as the "strategy of the balance of fear...."
Let us do some mathematical calculations: 250 Palestinians have signed up for martyrdom operations, and it is not impossible to raise their number to 1000 throughout the Arab world...i.e., one fida'i out of every 250,000 Arabs. The average harvest of each act of martyrdom is 10 dead and 50 wounded. Thus, 1000 acts of martyrdom would leave the Zionists with at least 10,000 dead and 50,000 wounded. This is double the Israeli casualties in all their wars with the Arabs since 1948 [sic]. They cannot bear this. There is also the added advantage, not noted by many, of the negative Jewish emigration, which as a result of 1,000 martyrdom operations, will come to at least one million Jews, followed by the return of every Jew to the place whence he came....
I am signing myself up as the first martyr from Egypt and declare that I am ready to commit an act of martyrdom at any moment. I will place myself under the command of Hassan Nasrallah, the Hamas, Islamic Jihad and any other Jihad movement....Never in my life have I asked Allah for money, honor or power. All I have asked, all I ask, all I will ask, is that Allah allow me to become a Shahid and grant me the honor of reaping as great a harvest as possible of Israeli lives....
This statement, which appeared in a mainstream journal in a country that had signed a peace treaty with Israel more than two decades earlier, did not encounter the least objection from other writers, the authorities, or human rights groups anywhere. Instead, it was echoed in other Islamic media. From Iran came reports of funds raised to support Palestinian "suicide operations" against Israel, as well as promises from Teheran to Islamic Jihad that its financial assistance would no longer be channeled through Hizbullah but disbursed directly to it. Israel is perceived as a danger to the entire region, not just the Palestinians, and Ayatollah Khomeini was cited as proclaiming that:
the goal of this virus Israel, that was planted in the heart of the Muslim world, is not only to annihilate the Arab nation but also Islam. Therefore the solution is to annihilate this virus, for there is no other treatment....The Islamic states and the Muslims should initiate the annihilation of this den of corruption in every possible way. It is permitted to use charity money for that purpose....
Similar calls to "annihilate the Jews" have become routine in Muslim mosques and in the writings of Saudi and other Muslim writers.
Holocaust denial is not new in Muslim countries, which have sponsored lecture tours by "revisionist historians" while also prohibiting the screening of Schindler's List. But recently, especially since the eruption of the Al-Aqsa Intifada, this has become a favorite pastime.
Holocaust denial assists in sustaining the longstanding accusations against the Jews, who are charged with "cultivating that legend and turning it into a fact that ties the hands of historians." The Jews are also condemned for "forging history," a charge that dates back to the inception of Islam, despite the "constant refutation by scientific articles that have proved that there have never been gas chambers, or that the numbers of the dead were significantly lower." It is also claimed that the Jews actually benefited from World War II, since if Japan and Germany had won, the Jews "could not have continued to blackmail the Gentiles with their lies." Abu Mazen, the purportedly moderate successor of Yasser Arafat, devoted a doctoral thesis to Holocaust denial that was eventually published as a book.
From denying or downplaying the Holocaust to accusing the Jews of conspiring with Nazism against their own people, as Abu Mazen and others have done, the road is short to defending Hitler against the "offenses" caused him by the Jews and their supporters. Following Western and Israeli protests to the Egyptian government about the widespread sympathy for Hitler in the Egyptian and Arab press in general, the government-owned daily Al-Akhbar relented only briefly before returning to its fascination with the Nazi despot. This time a cleric from al-Azhar University, Mahmud Khadr, titled his contribution "In Defense of Hitler" and condemned not only Israel and the Jews but also the West:
...Hitler and many of his ministers took their own lives so that they would not have to see the faces of the old ape, Churchill, and the big bear, Stalin, who would sentence them to death with no one to defend them....Each one of them has a right to his defense..., but Hitler's executioners took his right away and attributed to him crimes, whether he committed them or not. I do not know what would have happened to Roosevelt, Churchill and de Gaulle, had Hitler won. Perhaps the crimes for which they deserve the death sentence would have been much worse than all that Hitler had done....
But all of Hitler's crimes and infractions were forgotten, except for the crime that was exaggerated and blown completely out of proportion, thanks to the insistence of world Zionism to continue to stoke the fire. The reason for this was the emotional need of the sons of Jacob to extort Germany and to eat away at its resources. It is amazing that Westerners, who are entitled to their own thinking, to confirming or denying anything, including the existence of the Prophets of Allah, cannot address the Jewish question, or more precisely the false Holocaust, whose numbers and scope they have exaggerated, until it has reached the level of the merciless destruction of six million Jews, only because Hitler saw them as an inferior race unworthy of living next to the Germanic race, which must rule the world...
Anyone who knocks on this door is accused of the most horrible things, and is tried in all Western courts for anti-Semitism..., for two reasons: one is due to Zionist control of thinking in the world and the degree of oppression of thought by the Zionist propaganda apparatus in those nations. No one can oppose this oppression for fear of going to prison or having his livelihood or reputation threatened.... The second is the fear that the lies of Zionism would be exposed if the subject of the Holocaust is investigated factually and the logical conclusions are drawn...
The first dubious fact is the number of six million Jews who were burnt in the gas chambers. Did they have children or families who demanded compensation, or did Zionism see itself as their heir? If we assume that everyone had an average of five family members, this would bring the number of the Jews affected to 30 million. It is certain that many Jews escaped before the ship sunk, that many of them survived, despite the so-called extermination and burning. This would mean that the number of Jews in Germany amounted to 60 million, although the total number of Germans has never reached this many....Even if we cross off one zero from the six million and we are left with a tenth of this number, it would still seem exaggerated and would have to be investigated....
It is difficult to imagine that the writer did not verify the number of Germany's population during the war, or that most of the exterminated Jews were not German but Polish, Baltic, or Soviet, or that in many cases entire Jewish families, often over three generations, were decimated, with no heir left behind to claim damages. All these manipulations of numbers are taken from the books of Holocaust deniers and are aimed at diminishing its dimensions and accusing the Jews of inflating them. A corollary of this line of thought has been to claim that since Hitler had no reason to exterminate so many Jews, therefore he did not. But Holocaust deniers, including Arabs and Muslims, are caught in the contradiction of both lessening its numbers and citing the alleged "threat" that the Jews posed to the Germans, hence the "imperative" to eliminate them.
The constant use of the Protocols and the blood libel in the Arab media, especially in new telenovellas and "documentaries" during the peak viewing month of Ramadan, creates an ambience in which any charge against the Jews is readily believed and repeated in other media as well. This is no less true in countries such as Jordan and Egypt that supposedly have made peace with Israel.
Among such claims the most virulent type deals with poisoning, and originates from the well-poisoning myth of classical European anti-Semitism. Arafat often accused Israel of distributing poisoned sweets to Palestinian children, or using depleted uranium in bullets so as to sexually incapacitate Palestinian fighters and thus diminish their numbers. At the height of this campaign, the Palestinian representative to the UN Human Rights Commission in Geneva, Dr. Abdallah Ramlawi, said Israel had injected three hundred Palestinian children with HIV-positive serum so as to impair their reproductive organs.
When Israel sent experts to Egypt to develop high-tech agriculture in the Nile Delta, with successful results, media reports claimed these Jews had come to Egypt, which did not need them and had sufficient agricultural know-how, only to poison Egypt's soil and destroy its age old, sophisticated farming. Newspapers also recycled the allegation that Israel had distributed throughout the Arab world an aphrodisiac chewing gum aimed at stoking Muslim women's sexual desire so as to lead them astray.
Perhaps most notable in this regard was the accusation, initiated by Palestinians and then embellished by other Arabs and Muslims, the United Nations, the European press, and even the Red Cross, about Israel "poisoning school girls" in the Jenin district of the West Bank. This story became a cause célèbre in March and April 1983, despite the fact that several investigations by Israeli and international bodies found it totally false. No one outside Israel, however, criticized the Palestinians, and the other Arabs and Muslims, for this hoax, and they concluded that they could spread such fabrications with impunity. After the 11 September attack and the anthrax panic in the United States, the Egyptian scientific journal al-'Ilm turned the tables on America, and Israel, by accusing them of committing war crimes with weapons of mass destruction:
In the summer of 1949 cholera spread throughout Egypt, following the establishment of Israel in 1948. Egyptian documents indicate that the disease originated from Israel....The US used germs in Vietnam and against North Korea and China....Biological weapons research is being conducted by Israeli universities. Prior to the October War of 1973, they injected birds with germs and released them above Jordan, Palestine and the Suez Canal....The US and Israel keep biological weapons at American bases; if they were to be used, they would destroy half the population of the area under attack. Some of this weaponry makes women miscarry....
Also, Jewish tourists infected with AIDS are traveling around Asian and African countries with the aim of spreading the disease....It is no coincidence that the US is the only member of the UN that has not signed the agreement on punishment for the collective annihilation of people....Israel continues to use germ warfare to destroy the Palestinian people on its occupied land, thus challenging the international community....
Anti-Semitic notions are so widespread in the Arab and Islamic worlds that they are taken for granted. Children are "educated" in their light, adults with university degrees read and write about them in the press, clerics preach them in mosques, politicians invoke them in speeches, and the media generally abound with them. Anti-Semitism has indeed become a basic part of education and socialization in these countries. The governments, including those that have signed peace agreements with Israel, do nothing to discourage the phenomenon and often wink in approval. These expressions, including those emanating from the cultural hub of the Arab world, Egypt, are widely circulated and create a "demand" for more.
Israel's own leniency toward this phenomenon, its failure to insist on its elimination as a condition for diplomatic exchange, contributes to its persistence. Simply demanding an end to anti-Jewish incitement in Muslim countries would not be enough; a mechanism would also be needed to monitor and curtail it. When Jörg Haider's Freedom Party joined the Austrian coalition in 2000, the Israeli government immediately recalled its ambassador from Vienna even though Haider had retracted his pro-Nazi statements. The anti-Semitic statements of Arab politicians, clerics, intellectuals, and pundits are, however, much more severe, prevalent, and persistent, yet Israel does not address the phenomenon seriously.
If Israel and world Jewry wish to combat Islamic and Arab anti- Semitism, this state of affairs cannot persist. Only if Muslims and Arabs are made to pay a heavy price for their encouragement of hatred and violence will their governments move to curb these phenomena in the education systems, media, mosque sermons, and political statements. Only the West is capable of levying such a price through pressures, sanctions, and threats, backed by action when necessary. A determination by the West to combat anti-Semitism in all its forms is the prerequisite for mitigating it in the Muslim world. It is primarily Israel that must insist that the West take on this role.
1. Al-Ahram (Egypt), 25 April 2002 (Arabic).
2. Al-Manar Television (Lebanon-Hizbullah), 24 April 2002 (Arabic).
3. A term coined by the present author in his book Islamikaze: Manifestations of Islamic Martyrology (London: Frank Cass, 2003), from a combination of Islam and Kamikaze, designating what is commonly (and mistakenly) referred to as "suicide bombers."
5. Iqra' Television (Saudi Arabia and Egypt), 24April 2002 (Arabic). See Memri 373, 30 April 2002.
6. For some of his most extreme condemnations of the Jews, see Raphael Israeli, Peace Is in the Eye of the Beholder (Berlin and New York: Mouton, 1985), esp. the concluding chapter.
7. October (Egypt), 17 June 2001 (Arabic).
9. Raphael Israeli, Fundamentalist Islam and Israel (New York: University Press of America, 1993), pp. 123-170.
10. In fact the number of Israeli fatalities has long surpassed twenty thousand, fourfold the author's estimate.
11. Al-Usbu' (Egypt), 28 May 2001 (Arabic). See Memri 224, 4 June 2001.
12. Al-Sharq al-Awsat (London), 8 June 2002 (Arabic).
13. Al-Manar Television (Lebanon-Hizbullah), 2 June 2002 (Arabic).
14. Al-Mustaqbal (Lebanon), 19 March 2002 (Arabic); Al-'Ukadh (Saudi Arabia), 22 November 2001 (Arabic); Al-Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), 22 November 2001 (Arabic).
15. Al-Wafd (Egypt), 13 February 2000 (Arabic); Al-Ahram (Egypt), 19 April 2000 (Arabic); Egyptian Gazette, 20 April 2000 (Arabic).
16. Al-Ahram (Egypt), 30 December 1999 (Arabic).
17. Al-Hayat (London), 31 January 2000 (Arabic); Al-Akhbar (Egypt), 26 January 2000 (Arabic); Al-Ahram (Egypt), 18 April, 17 May 2000 (Arabic); Egyptian Gazette, 17 April 2000 (Arabic), etc.
18. The Secret Ties between the Nazis and the Zionist Movement Leadership (Amman: Dar Ibn Rushd, 1984) (Arabic).
19. See Israeli, Peace, esp. pp. 33-34, 231, 326.
20. Al-Akhbar (Egypt), 27 May 2001 (Arabic). See Memri 231, 20 June 2001.
21. See Raphael Israeli, Poison: Manifestations of a Blood Libel (New York and Oxford: Lexington Books, 2002).
22. Al-'Ilm (Egypt), November 2001 (Arabic). See Memri 322, 28 December 2001.
This article was published by the Jerusalem Center for Public
Affairs (JCPA) as a Jewish Political Studies Review article -- 17:3-4,
Fall, 2005 (http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-israeli-f05.htm).
Professor Raphael Israeli was born in Fez, Morocco, and received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. Since 1974 he has taught in the Departments of Middle Eastern History and Chinese History and been a senior fellow of the Truman Research Institute at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a fellow of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, and a member of the Steering Committee of the Ariel Center for Policy Research. Prof. Israeli has authored some twenty books and one hundred articles on the Muslim, Arab, and Chinese worlds.
This article was published by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA) as a Jewish Political Studies Review article -- 17:3-4, Fall, 2005 (http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-israeli-f05.htm).
|HOME||Nov-Dec 2005 Featured Stories||Background Information||News On The Web|